1. *when 引导突然发生的动作，意为：正在那时…
We were eating when a friend came to see me. (我们正在吃饭，正在那时一个朋友来了)
2. *hardly/ scarcely/ barely …when 句式 ， 意为：一…….就….
no sooner …than
I had hardly fallen asleep when the telephone rang. 非倒装句 (我刚一睡着,电话铃就像了)
I had no sooner fallen asleep than the telephone rang.
Hardly had I fallen asleep when the telephone rang. 倒装句
No sooner had I fallen asleep than the telephone rang.
3. while 1) 当…的时候
while 句子/while doing sth
They knocked at the door while/ when I was taking a bath
*2) (放在句中)而, 但是(强调前后两者的反差)
Jane is fashionable while her sister’s clothes are often out-of-date.
While I admit the problem is difficult, I don’t agree they can’t be solved.
It won’t be long before everyone knows it./ It wasn’t long before everyone knew it.不久…
It was a week before he returned. 过了一周才…
**Long before 区别before long
It wasn’t long before she quit smoking. 不久她就戒烟了
I expect the bus will be here before long. (before long = soon)
Three years had passed before we knew it. 不知不觉三年过去了
Do it before you forget. 趁着没忘先做.
The thief ran away before I had time to shout for help. 在我还没来得及求救之前,小偷跑了
5. since 自从,
It is two weeks since I came.
It was two weeks since I had come.
until 用于肯定句, 前面的动词要用持续动词; until 用于否定句, 前面的动词使瞬间动词
He didn’t leave until I returned.否定句用瞬间动词
Keep waiting until he comes back.肯定句用持续动词
I didn’t go to bed until I finished homework. not until 的原始句型
Not until I finished homework did I go to bed. not until 的倒装句型
It was not until I finished my homework that I went to bed. not until 的强调句型
7. **every time/ each time/next time/the minute/ the second/ the first time/ the moment 直接引导时间状语从句， 不加that或when
She is nervous every time she sees me.
The first time I saw her, I didn’t take it seriously.
The first time = when …for the first time
When I saw her for the first time, I was nervous.
Cf. for the first time
Last week, I went to the States for the first time.
8. unless = if not 如果不
9. as long as/ so long as/ on condition that 只要
10. even though/ even if 即使
11. **where 引导地点状语
Where there is water , there is life.
Plants grow well where there is plenty of water.\
Don’t put the medicine where children can get it.
Leave the books where you found them.
It is/ has been ten years since I graduated. 我毕业已经十年了
It will be/ is two years before I graduate. 我要过两年才毕业
It was/ is …..that/ who 强调句型
It is ten years ago that I graduated.
13．I don’t care whatever they say.
Whatever they say/ No matter what they say, I don’t care.
14. Hard as/though he worked, he failed. 虽然
Adult as/though he is, he is really childish. 虽然
As he worked hard, he realized his dream. 因为
15． However hard it rains/ No matter how hard it rains , we will have the sports meeting.无论
注意语序！how/ however 后面跟形容词或副词