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高考英语主谓一致语法复习

高考英语主谓一致语法复习

分类:高三英语教案   更新:2013/1/26   来源:网友提供

高考英语主谓一致语法复习

高中英语语法之主谓一致概述:1)语法形式上要一致,即用作主语的名词中心词和谓语动词在单、复数形式上一致2)意义上要一致,即主语和谓语的一致关系取决于主语的单、复数意义.1并列结构作主语时当意义为复数时谓语用复数注意:当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数

高中英语语法之主谓一致
概述:1) 语法形式上要一致,即用作主语的名词中心词和谓语动词在单、复数形式上一致 2) 意义上要一致,即主语和谓语的一致关系取决于主语的单、复数意义.
1 并列结构作主语时当意义为复数时谓语用复数
注意: 当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词.
The iron and steel industry is very important to our life.
The League secretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting.
A. is B. was C. are D. were
答案B. 注: 先从时态上考虑.这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除A.,C..本题易误选D,因为The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人,但仔细辨别, monitor 前没有the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词.后面的职务用and 相连.这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选B.
2 主谓一致中的靠近原则
当there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致.
There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk..
There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.
总的来说,在由not only…but also…, not just…but…, or, either…or…, neither…nor…连接主语的句子中及在there be句型中,谓语动词的单复数按就近原则处理,即按与谓语动词最靠近的那个主语来确定谓语动词的单复数形式。如:
Not only John but also I am going to Shanghai next week.     Either you or she is to go.
Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you.
3 谓语动词与前面的主语一致   
当主语后面跟有with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as 等词引起的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语一致.     The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory.       He as well as I wants to go boating.
4 谓语需用单数
1) 代词each和由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语,或主语中含有each, every, 谓语需用单数.
Each of us has a tape-recorder.         There is something wrong with my watch.
2) 当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数.
The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English.   
< The Arabian Night >是英语爱好者熟悉的一本好书.
3) 表示金钱,时间.距离.价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数.(用复数也可,意思不变.)      Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.          Ten yuan is enough. www.ks5u.com
5 指代意义决定谓语的单复数
1) 在代词what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定.      All is right. (一切顺利.)      All are present. (所有人都到齐了.)
2) 集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定.如family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee等词后用复数形式时,意为这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时表示该个集体.     His family isn't very large. 他家不是一个大家庭.
His family are music lovers. 他的家人都是音乐爱好者.
但集合名词people, police, cattle, poultry(家禽).militia(民兵).vermin等在任何情况下都用复数形式.     Are there any police around
3)有些名词,如variety, number, population, proportion, majority 等有时看作单数,有时看作复数.   A number of +名词复数+复数动词.   The number of +名词复数+单数动词.
A number of books have lent out.      The majority of the students like English.
6 与后接名词或代词保持一致
1) 用half of, part of, most of, a portion of 等词引起主语时,动词通常与of后面的名词,代词保持一致.      Most of his money is spent on books.
Most of the students are taking an active part in sports.
2) 在一些短语,如 many a 或 more than one 所修饰的词作主语时,谓语动词多用单数形式.但由more than… of 作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致.
Many a person has read the novel. 许多人都读过这本书.
More than 60 percent of the students are from the city.百分之六十多的学生都来自这个城市.
主谓一致中的"表里不一"现象
和主语必须在人称和数上保持一致,最基本的原则是:单数主语用单数动词,复数主语用复数动词.但在实际使用当中情况比较复杂,现在学生常犯的主谓一致错误归纳整理如下
1,"more than one +名词"作主语时,谓语动词常用单数.例如:
More than one teacher gets the flowers. 不止一个教师得到了花.
2, "many a +名词"作主语时,从意义上看是复数,但谓语动词常用单数.例如:
Many a student has been sent to plant trees. 很多学生被派去植树.
3,"half of, the rest of, most of, all of及百分数或分数+of 等后接名词"作主语时,谓语动词形式根据of后的名词而定.例如:
Three fourths of the surface of the earth is covered with water.地球表面四分之三为水所覆盖.
4,all指人时,动词用复数;all指物时,动词用单数.例如:
"All are present and all is going well." 所有人全部到场了,一切进展顺利
5,what引导的主语从句,谓语动词可视表语而定:表语是单数名词时,动词用单数,相反,则用复数.例如:What they want to get is the number of good books.他们想得到的是大量的好书.
6,and连接的两个单数名词前若用each,every,no修饰,该名词短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式.例如:   No book and no pen is found in the schoolbag.书包里没有书和钢笔.
7,当主语后面有as well as, with, along with, together with, but, like, rather than, except等引导的短语时,谓语动词要与最前面的主语保持一致.例如:
My father as well as his workmates has been to Beijing. 我父亲和他的同事曾去过北京.
8,each作主语的同位语时, 谓语动词由主语来决定,与each无关.例如:
They each have a bike. 他们每人有一辆自行车.
9,动词不定式,动词-ing形式短语作主语时,谓语动词常用单数.例如:
Going out for a walk after supper is a good habit.晚饭后出去散步是一个好习惯.
10,the following作主语时,谓语动词的数与后面名词的数保持一致.例如:
The following are good examples下面是一些好例子.
11,以-ics结尾的学科名词,如politics,physics,mathematics等作主语时,谓语动词用单数.以-s结尾的名词news, works, plastics等同属此类.例如:
Politics is now taught in all schools. 现在各学校都开设政治课.
当以-ics结尾的学科名词表示"学科"以外的意义时,用作复数,如:mathematics(运算能力)politics(政治观点)economics(经济意义)等
12,有些用来表示由两个对应部分组成一体的名词复数(trousers, glasses,shoes.shorts.scissors.scales等)作主语时,前面若有"一条","一副","一把"之类的单位词,动词用单数;若没有单位词或单位词是复数,则谓语动词用复数.例如:
The shoes are all right. 这些鞋子都很合适.还有一些以-s结尾的名词通常用复数:arms(武器).clothes.contents.minites(记录).remains(遗体).thanks等
13,"one and a half +名词"作主语时,谓语动词要用单数.例如:
One and a half apples is left on the table. 桌子上有一个半苹果.
14,"One or two more +复数名词"作主语时,谓语动词用复数.例如:One or two persons are sent there to help them do the work. 要派一两个人到那儿去给他们帮忙.
15,"one of+复数名词+ 定语从句"结构中,定语从句的谓语动词要用复数;而在"the only one of +复数名词+定语从句"的结构中,定语从句的谓语动词要用单数.例如:  He is one of the students who get there on time.他是准时到达那里的学生之一.
16,表示时间,距离,金钱等的复数名词作主语表达一个整体概念时,谓语动词常用单数,但若强调数量,谓语动词可用复数.例如:
One million dollars is a lot of money. 一百万美元是一大笔钱.
以-s结尾的名词作主语的主谓一致问题
英语可数名词的规则复数形式是在词尾加-s或-es,但是有一些以-s结尾的名词并不是可数名词。它们用法多样,造成了实际使用上的困难,以下详述了以-s结尾的名词作主语的主谓一致问题。
(一)以-s结尾的疾病名称作主语的主谓一致问题
以-s结尾的疾病名称作主语的主谓一致问题,如:arthritis,bronchitis,diabetes,mumps,phlebitis,rickets,这类以-s结尾的疾病名称作主语时,谓语动词通常用作单数。 例如: Arthritis causes great pain in the joints of the patient.
(二)以-s结尾的游戏名称作主语的主谓一致问题
以-s结尾的游戏名称作主语时,谓语动词通常用作单数。 例如:
Darts is basically a easy game.
但当Darts,Marbles等的意义为游戏器具而非游戏名称时,谓语动词通常用作复数。 例如: Three darts are thrown at each turn.  All nine skittles were brought down by the good throw.
(三)以-s结尾的地理名称作主语的主谓一致问题
某些以-s结尾的地理名称,如果是国名,如the United States,the Netherlands等,因其是单一政治实体,所以谓语动词用作单数。 例如:
The United States was hit by the Great Depression in 1930s'.
In early January 1996 the Netherlands was hit by its worst storm since 1976.
但如果是群岛、山脉、海峡、瀑布等地理名称作主语,谓语动词用作复数。例如:
The West Indies are commonly divided into two parts.
(四)以-ics结尾的学科名称作主语的主谓一致问题
某些以-ics结尾的学科名称作主语时,如physics,mathematics,mechanics, optics, acoustics, politics statistics, economics, linguistics, athletics等, 谓语动词通常用作单数。 例如:
The third world economics is promising.  Athletics is a required course for students of all grades.
但如果这类名词表示学科以外的其它含义,可作复数用。 例如:
Athletics have been greatly encouraged at this college.
(五)其它以-s结尾的名词的主谓一致问题
A.以-s结尾的由两部分组成的物体名称作主语 
英语中有一些通常以-s结尾的由两部分组成的物体名词,如glasses, pincers,pliers,scissors, shorts,suspenders,trouse等
集合名词的主谓一致
集合名词作主语时,主谓一致关系是一个较为复杂的问题.对此类问题我们可以从"数"的角度分为四类.
1)单数—复数型.凡是有复数词尾变化形式的集合名词都属于此类.如:a class—classes; a family—families; a government—governments; an army—armies; a people—peoples; a group—groups; a crowd—crowds; a crew—crews等.这类集合名词强调的是整体性,即当作一个整体或多个整体来看待.属于这类集合名词的单数作主语时,谓语动词用单数;复数形式作主语时,谓语动词用复数.
【例如】A big crowd often gathers on the square every morning.     The government has decided to pass the bill.     There are huge crowds in the streets on Sunday.     There are many English-speaking peoples in the world.
但应注意,这类集合名词的单数形式有时表示复数概念,所以这些集合名词的单数形式也可归为"单复同形型"中.
2)单数型.这类集合名词表示的是人或事物的整体,即把这类人或事物的全部包括在内,所以只有单数形式.如作主语,谓语动词常用单数.这类名词常见的有:humanity, mankind, proletariat等.
【例如】The proletariat is the greatest class in the history of mankind. In the fields of production and scientific experiment, mankind makes constant progress.
3)复数型.这类集合名词在形式和内容上是相互矛盾的,就是说它们只有单数形式,但表达的都是复数概念.它强调的是集体中的个体性.这类名词有:police, cattle, faculty, flock, machinery, vermin, personnel等.它们作主语时,谓语动词要用复数.
【例如】The police have caught the murder.    Our personnel are very highly trained.
The vermin are very dangerous.
4)单复同形型.这类集合名词的单数形式既可表示单数也可表示复数.作主语时,用单数动词或复数动词均可,有时意义区别不大.
【例如】The school teaching staff are (is) excellent.     The public is (are) requested not to litter in the park.     The teaching profession claim(s) to be badly paid.
这类集合名词常见的有:class, family, team, crew, board, herd, committee, party, jury, enemy, audience等.
根据说话人的心理意向若把这个集合名词所代表的人或事物看作一个整体,就认为是单数,用单数动词;若把它所代表的人或事物看作若干个个体的话,就认为其为复数,用复数动词.
试比较:The football team is playing well.    那个足球队打得非常漂亮.
The football team are shavings bath and are then coming back here for tea. 足球队员们正在洗澡,然后来这里吃茶点.
The family is a very happy one.那个家庭是一个非常幸福的家庭.
That family are very pleased about the news of William's success. 全家人对威廉的成功都感到很高兴.
练习
1. Neither of them ______ going to the cinema. Both of them _____ going to the cinema.
A. is ; are           B. is ; is        C. are ; was         D. are ; is
2. All but one _____ here just now. All that I want to say ____ this.
A. was; were         B. was; is      C. were; is        D. were; were
3. A number of students ____ gone for an outing. The number of the students ______ increasing year.      A. have; has     B. is; have     C. has; have    D. hav

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