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高考英语情态动词语法复习

高考英语情态动词语法复习

分类:高三英语教案   更新:2013/1/26   来源:网友提供

高考英语情态动词语法复习

高中英语语法之情态动词(一)情态动词的定义:情态动词表示说话人对某一动作或状态的态度。(二)情态动词的特点:1)有一定词义;2)不受主语人称和数的变化影响;3)与主要动词的原形(或称不带to的不定式)一起构成谓语(除oughtto作固定词组看待)。情态动词无人称和数的变化,情态动词后面跟的动词需用原

高中英语语法之情态动词
(一)情态动词的定义 :情态动词表示说话人对某一动作或状态的态度。
(二)情态动词的特点 :1)有一定词义;2)不受主语人称和数的变化影响;3)与主要动词的原形(或称不带to的不定式)一起构成谓语(除ought to作固定词组看待)。
 情态动词无人称和数的变化, 情态动词后面跟的动词需用原形,否定式构成是在情态动词后面加 "not"。 个别情态动词有现在式和过去式两种形式, 过去式用来表达更加客气, 委婉的语气, 时态性不强, 可用于过去,现在或将来。情态动词属非及物动词,故没有被动语态。
He could be here soon. 他很快就来。 We can't carry the heavy box. 我们搬不动那箱子。
I'm sorry I can't help you. 对不起,我帮不上你。
基本助动词与情态助动词最主要的区别之一是,基本助动词本身没有词义,而情态助动词则有自己的词义,能表示说话人对有关动作或状态的看法,或表示主观设想:
What have you been doing since? (构成完成进行体,本身无词义)
I am afraid I must be going. (一定要)
You may have read some account of the matter. (或许已经)
除此之外,情态助动词还有如下词法和句法特征:
1) 除ought和used以外,其他情态动词后面只能接不带to的不定式。如果我们把ought to和used to看做是固定词组的话,那么,所有情态动词无一例外地只能接不带to的不定式:
We used to grow beautiful roses.
I asked if he would come and repair my television set.
2) 情态助动词在限定动词词组总是位居第一: They need not have been punished so severely.
3) 情态助动词用于第三人称单数现在时的时候,没有词形变化,即其词尾无-s形式:
She dare not say what she thinks.
4) 情态动词没有非限定形式,即没有不定式和分词形式,也没有相应的动名词:
Still, she needn't have run away. 
5) 情态助动词的“时”的形式并不是时间区别的主要标志。在不少场合,情态助动词的现在时和过去时形式都可以表示现在、过去或将来时间: Would you mind very much if I ask you to do something?     She told him he ought not to have done it.
6) 情态助动词之间是相互排斥的,即在一个限定动词词组中只能出现一个情态助动词,但有时却可以与have和be基本助动词连用: You should have washed the wound.
Well, you shouldn't be reading a novel.
(三)情态动词有四类:①只做情态动词:must,can(could),may(might),ought to  ②可做情态动词又可做实义动词:need,dare   ③可做情态动词又可做助动词:shall(should),will(would)
④具有情态动词特征:have(had,has) to,used to   ⑤情态动词表猜测
(四)情态动词的基本用法
1. can (could)
1)表示能力,could主要指过去时间。
Two eyes can see more than one. 两只眼比一只眼看得清。
Could the girl read before she went to school? 这女孩上学前能识字吗?
2)表示可能(理论上或是逻辑判断上)。
The temperature can fall to –60℃, that is 60℃ below freezing.
气温可降至—60℃,也就是零下60℃。
He can´t (couldn´t) have enough money for a new car. 他不可能有足够的钱买新车。
You mustn´t smoke while you´re walking around in the wood. You could start a fire.
在林子里走时勿吸烟,那样可能会引起火灾。
3)表示允许。
Can I have a look at your new pen? 我可以看一看你的新钢笔吗?
He asked whether he could take the book out of the reading—room.
他问他可不可以把书带出阅览室。
4)表惊异、怀疑、不相信等态度。主要用于否定句、疑问句或感叹句中。
Where can (could) they have gone to? 他们会去哪儿了呢?
He can´t (couldn´t) be over sixty. 他不可能超过六十岁。
How can you be so careless? 你怎么这么粗心?
5)比较委婉客气地提出问题或陈述看法。
Can (Could) you lend me a hand? 帮我一把好吗?
I´m afraid we couldn´t give you an answer today. 恐怕我们今天不能给你答复。
2. may (might)
1)表允许,might可以指过去时间,也可指现在时间,语气更委婉。
You may take whatever you like. 你喜欢什么就拿什么。
He told me that I might smoke in the room. 他告诉我可以在房间里抽烟。
May (Might) I ask for a photo of your baby? 我可以要一张你宝宝的照片吗?
在回答以may引起的问句时,多避免用这个词,而用其它方式,如Yes, please. / Certainly.
/ Please don´t ./ You´d better not. / No, you mustn´t.等,以免显得太严峻或不客气。
2)表可能(事实上)。可以指过去时间,也可以指现在时间,但语气更加不肯定。
He may be at home. 他可能在家。
She may not know about it. 她可能不知道这件事。
He was afraid they might not agree with him. 他担心他们可能不同意他的意见。
They might be having a meeting, but I´m not sure. 他们有可能在开会,不过我不肯定。
3. must
1)表示义务。意为“必须”(主观意志)。
We must do everything step by step. 我们一切都必须循序渐进地做。
You mustn´t talk to her like that. 你不可能那样对她说话。
--Must we hand in our exercise—books now? 我们现在就要交练习本吗?
--No, you needn´t. / No, you don´t have to. 不必。(这种情况下,一般不用mustn´t) 
2)表示揣测。意为“想必、准是、一定”等,只用于肯定句。
He must be ill. He looks so pale. 他准是病了。他的脸色苍白。
She´s wearing a diamond necklace. She must have a lot of money.
她戴着钻石项链,一定很有钱。
4. shall
1)表征询意见,用于第一、第三人称疑问句。
Shall I get you some tea? 我给你点茶好吗?
Shall the boy wait outside? 让那男孩在外面等吗? 
What shall we do this evening? 我们今晚做什么?
2)表说话人的意愿,有“命令、允诺、警告、决心”等意思,用于第二、第三人称陈述句。 
You shall do as I say. 按我说的做。(命令) 
You shall have my answer tomorrow. 你明天可以得到我的答复。(允诺) 
He shall be sorry for it one day, I tell you. 有一天他会后悔的,我告诉你。(警告) 
Nothing shall stop us from carrying out the plan. 什么也不能阻止我们执行这项计划。(决心) 
5. will
1)表意愿,用于各种人称陈述句。
I will do anything for you. 我愿为你做任何事。
None is so blind as those who won´t see. 不愿看的人眼最瞎。 
If you will read the book, I´ll lend it to you. 如果你愿意读这本书,我会把它借给你。
2)表请求,用于疑问句。 
Will you close the window? It´s a bit cold. 请你把窗户关上好吗?有点冷。 
Won´t you drink some more coffee? 再来一点咖啡好吗? 
3)表示某种倾向或习惯性动作。 
Fish will die out of water. 鱼离开水就不能活。  The door won´t open. 这门打不开。
The boy will sit there hour after hour looking at the traffic go by. 
那男孩常常坐在那里好几个钟点,看着车辆行人通过。
6. should
1)表义务。意为“应该”(某件事宜于做),用于各种人称。
You should be polite to your teachers. 你对老师应该有礼貌。
You shouldn´t waste any time. 你不应该浪费时间。
2)表推测,意为“想必一定、照说应该、估计”等。
The film should be very good as it is starring first—class actors. 
这部新电影是一流演员主演的,估计拍得很好。
They should be home by now. 照说他们现在应当已经到家了。
7.would
1)表意愿。
They would not let him in because he was poorly dressed. 他们不让他进去因为他衣着破旧。
I said I would do anything for you. 我说过我愿意为你做任何事。
2)表委婉地提出请求、建议或看法。
Would you like another glass of beer? 再来杯啤酒好吗?
Would you mind cleaning the window? 请把窗户擦一下好吗?
They wouldn´t have anything against it. 他们不会有什么反对意见。
3)表过去反复发生的动作或过去的一种倾向。
Every time she was in trouble, she would go to him for help.
她每遇到麻烦都会向她求助。他告诉我盒子打不开了。
8. ought to
1)表义务,意为“应该”(因责任、义务等该做),口气比should稍重。
You are his father. You ought to take care of him. 你是他父亲,应当管他。
You oughtn´t to smoke so much. 你不应该抽这么多烟。
2)表推测,暗含很大的可能,语气较弱。
Han Mei ought to know his telephone number. 韩梅该知道他的电话号码。
There´s a fine sunset; it ought to be a fine day tomorrow. 今天有晚霞,明天应该是个好天。
9. used to
表示过去的习惯动作或状态,现在不复发生或存在。疑问式和否定式有两种。
He used to live in the countryside, but now he lives in the city.他过去住在乡下,现在住在城里。 
There used to be a building at the street corner, but it has been pulled down.
街道拐角处过去有座楼房,现在拆了。
I usedn´t (didn´t use) to smoke. 我过去不抽烟。
 Used you (Did you use) to go to school on foot? 你过去常步行去学校吗?
(五)其他用法
首先它是动词,而且不同于行为动词,行为动词表示的是可以通过行为来表达的动作(如写,读,跑),而情态动词只是表达的一种想法(如能,也许,敢)。
用法是:情态动词+行为动词原形
例句:I can read this sentence in English. 我能用英语读这句话。
情态动词是一种本身有一定的词义,表示说话人的情绪,态度或语气的动词,但不能单独作谓语, 只能和其他动词原形构成谓语。
We can be there on time tomorrow.我们明天能按时去那儿。
May I have your name? 我能知道你的名字吗?
Shall we begin now?我们现在就开始吗?
You must obey the school rules.你必须遵守校规。
情态动词数量不多,但用途广泛,主要有下列: can (could), may (might), must, need, ought to, dare (dared), shall (should), will (would),have (to) ,had better.
情态动词还有一个很重要的用法,即情态动词表推测——
情态动词表推测的用法小结
(一)情态动词表推测的三种句式
1.在肯定句中一般用must (一定),may(可能),might / could(也许,或许)。 www.ks5u.com
(1)He must/may/might know the answer to this question?
他一定/可能/也许知道这个问题的答案。
(2)It is cold in the room. They must have turned off the heating.
屋里很冷,他们肯定把暖气关了。
2.否定句中用can’t / couldn’t(不可能), may not/might not(可能不)。
(1)It can’t/couldn’t be the headmaster. He has gone to America.
这不可能是校长,他去美国了。
(2)He may not/might not know the scientist. 他也许不认识那位科学家。
3.疑问句中用can/could (能……?)。
(1)Could he have finished the task? 他可能把任务完成了吗?
(2)Can he be at home now? 他现在能在家吗?
注:以上三种句式中情态动词的语气按程度都是依次递减的。Might, could并非may, can的过去式,而表示语气较为委婉或可能性较小。
(二)情态动词表推测的三种时态
1.对将来情况的推测,用“情态动词 + 动词原形”。
(1)She must / may / might / could arrive before 5.      5:00前她一定/可能/也许到。
(2)She must/may/might/could walk miles and miles among the hills without meeting anyone.
她一定/可能/也许会在山里一连走好几英里而遇不到一个人。
2.对现在或一般情况的推测,用“情态动词 + be”,“情态动词 +be doing”或“情态动词 + 动词原形”。
(1)He must / may / might / could be listening to the radio now.
他一定/可能/也许正在听收音机。
(2)He can’t ( couldn’t ) / may ( might ) not be at home at this time.
这个时候他不可能/可能不在家。
(3)Mr. Bush is on time for everything .How can ( could ) he be late for the opening ceremony ?
布什先生一向准时,这次开幕式他怎么可能迟到呢?
3.对过去情况的推测,用“情态动词 + have +过去分词”。
(1)It must / may / might / could have rained last night .The ground is wet.
  地湿了,昨晚肯定/可能/也许下雨了。
(2)The door was locked. He can ( could ) not / may ( might ) not have been at home .
  门锁着,他不可能/可能不在家。
(3)Can / Could he have gotten the book?
  难道他找到书了吗?
注:情态动词 should /ought to表推测时,意为“想必会,理应……”但与“have +过去分词”连用时,则又可构成虚拟语气意为“本应该做某事却没做”。例如:
(4)It’s seven o’clock. Jack should/ought to be here at any moment.
现在七点钟了,杰克理应随时到达。(推测)
(5)She should / ought to have attended your birthday party, but she had to look after her mother in hospital. (虚拟) 她本该出席你的生日晚会的,可是她得在医院照顾她妈妈。
(6)Tom should not /ought not to have told me your secret, but he meant no harm. (虚拟)
汤姆本不该告诉我你的秘密,可是他并无恶意。
(六)功能
助动词(auxiliary)主要有两类:基本助动词(primary auxiliary)和情态助动词(modal auxiliary)。基本助动词有三个:do, have和be;情态助动词基本的有十四个:may, might; can, could; will, would; shall, should; must, need, dare, used to, ought to.had better 上述两类助动词的共同特征是,在协助主动词构成限定动词词组时,具有作用词的功能:
1) 构成否定式:
He didn't go and neither did she.        The meeting might not start until 5 o'clock.
2) 构成疑问式或附加疑问式:
Must you leave right now?       You have been learning French for 5 years, haven't you?
3) 构成修辞倒装:
Nowhere can he obtain any information about his sister.
Hardly had he arrived when she started complaining.
4) 代替限定动词词组:
A: Who can solve this crossword puzzle?       B: Tom can.
A: Shall I write to him?         B: Yes, do.
重点疑难
(一)need和dare的用法
need和dare既可用作情态动词,也可用作实义动词。用作情态动词时,主要用于否定句和疑问句。用作实义动词时,可用于各种句式。
1.用作情态动词
--Need I come? --Yes,

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